《雲林有大家》紙製神像-蔡爾容

紙製神像-蔡爾容
Statue of Buddha Made by Paper – Eh-Zung Tsai

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民間有一傳說,「一紙,二土,三木,四金。」意思是──用紙製作的神像最靈驗。紙製神像約從東漢時期就有了,魏晉南北朝出現木胎泥塑神像,而隋唐時代開始出現木雕神像、金銅神像。
The legend said “Paper first, earth second, wood third and gold forth”. This means that the statues of Buddha and gods are the most efficacious if made from paper. The paper statues of Buddha started from the Eastern Han Dynasty. Wood and clay statues of Buddha started from Wei, Chin and Six Dynasties, and wood carving, gold and copper statue of Buddha started from the Sui and Tang Dynasties.

多年前,蔡爾容的父親是台灣唯一從事建醮神明紙臉工藝的師傅。他以紙製面具、紙製神偶頭像為主。民國87年,蔡爾容回到北港小鎮正式接手父親的工作,開始思考、研發、摸索,嘗試製作整尊的紙塑神像。但是一千多年來,紙製神像都在慶典中被燒光,想學,也沒有人教,這項技術可說是完全失傳了。但是蔡爾容本著研究精神,尋找每一本記錄與「紙製神像」相關的古書、史籍。經過六年的努力,終於一點一滴地拼湊出全貌。
Many years ago, Eh-Zun Tsai’s father used to be the only artist who made the faces of ritual gods by paper. He made masks and heads of the Buddhas’ and gods’ by paper. Eh-Zun Tsai officially returned to Beigang Town to take over his father’s work in the year of 1998, when he started to think of research, discovery and attempting to make a whole statue of the Buddhas and gods by paper. However, all the paper made statues of Buddhas and gods were burnt during the festivals for the past one thousand years. Even if you wanted to learn, no one was able to teach you. This technique is basically lost completely. However, Tsai used his research spirit to study every historical book and record that was related to “statues of Buddhas and gods made by paper”. After six years of hard work, he finally put the puzzles together one piece after another.

一般紙製神像之製作方式大概分兩種,一種南派即是一般台灣人所稱之糊紙,是用其他媒材(竹子、木頭)先塑造形體,最外面再糊上紙,進行彩繪及裝飾。但這樣的神像身體並不紮實,只是糊上一層紙而已,俗稱薄胎,保存性不佳,每年都需要更換。但蔡大哥所製作的是另一種失傳一百多年的北派厚胎製作方式,此方式是專為製作可長期供奉之神像所用,是用最接近東漢蔡倫造紙的竹子紙去塑造人體形狀,四肢不僅有關節,還能活動,可以保存數十年到數百年。
There are two kinds of statues of Buddhas and gods made by paper. One is the southern style, which is called paste paper in Taiwan. It uses other materials such as bamboo and wood to create the figures first, paste paper outside and then finally color and decorate. However, the statue is not very solid because of the way the paper Buddha and god statue is made, since it is only pasted by a layer of paper. This is commonly known by the name of eggshell, which does not preserve well and needs to be replaced every year. However, Tsai makes the paper statue with the northern style, which was long lost for over one hundred years. This style is used to make statues of Buddhas and gods that can be worshiped for the long term. It uses bamboo paper, which is similar to the paper making technique invented by Cai Lun in Ancient China of the Eastern Han Dynasty, to make figures of statues. Not only do the four limbs have joints, but they can also move around. The statues that are made by paper can even be preserved for up to tens or hundreds of years.

一千多年來的技術在每一次的儀式中燒毀,一直無法傳承,也沒辦法進步;現在蔡大哥要用自己的技術做出各式各樣的神像來,替世世代代的子孫留下最珍貴的資產。
For over one thousand years, the technique was burnt and destroyed on every ritual and it could not be passed down or improved. Tsai is now using his own technique to make different kinds of statues of Buddhas and gods to leave the most valuable assets for the future generations of descendants.

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一二三,阿破與土地的三部曲

前幾天接受一個朋友的訪問,雖然年輕但卻已經很出色,勝過許多前輩了,只要時間繼續累積相信會是未來舉足輕重之人。

經過他的訪問我才稍微意識到了這三本書有著許多些微的不同,卻又剛好構成了一個完整的面相:認識台灣的多面相。

 

因為去了希臘,美景當前所以狂拍照片,回台灣之後一陣空虛,覺得在也不能用背包客走馬看花的方式去旅行了,後來,2008年去了印度當志工,因為身分而去了很多觀光客不會去的地方,看見了不同國家人民的真實生活,不過卻是在遇見了各國志工之後才覺得,自己不認識自己生長的土地。

《印度。漂流》寫的是那段真實的進入印度生活的日子,讓許多真正的畫面被看見,而不只是那些古蹟、紗麗還是笑容。

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2011年初開始進入雲林拍攝,這等同於我開始認識土地的契機,看見不同的風景,滿是蚵架夕陽、破敗的紅磚三合院、地層下陷的真實上演,然後遇見了在各領域的專家,養鰻魚的、養烏魚的、種田的、種菜的、養文蛤的,對我來說,我終於知道我們吃的食物是怎麼來的,從產地到餐桌的這段經驗終於能夠連結上了,然後許多傳承老工藝的師傅們,他們的精神讓我感動。最後則是看見這塊土地未來的希望,那群願意回鄉工作打拼的年輕人。

《雲林有大家》寫的是我回到土地上探索的過程,有難以想像卻真實存在的風景,有各行各業的職人,也有數十年如一日的工藝師傅,還有願意回鄉的年輕人。

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不過,這些都僅止於台灣西部,阿塱壹,則是我第一次認識原住民文化。

旭海是位於台灣東南角的村莊,雖屬於必經之路卻還是交通不便,但小小的旭海卻是過去斯卡羅人現今的居住地,四百年前一群從台東知本遷移至恆春半島的族人,靠著通婚與結盟,建立了強盛的斯卡羅族,幾乎統治了整個下瑯橋十八蕃社(恆春半島),原本屬於卑南族的他們被半島的排灣族同化,而後又加入了阿美族、客家人、漢人,成了一個族群大融合的部落,日治期間,潘阿別頭目率領族人遷移至旭海定居,而原本斯卡羅族的勢力也崩解了。

 

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這一段歷史,我從第二天進到旭海村的時候,遇見佳昌才知道,原來我遇見的是這樣一段有著長遠歷史的族群。族群融合的結果,在原住民部落講的居然是台語,是讓我最出乎意料的部分。我在進行一項採訪的時候,常常一開始都是完全不做準備的進入那個場域,讓自己能夠完全空白的去觀察去感受,例如去印度的頭一天,我只知道如何從飛機場到火車站,然後就有人會來接我了,但也因為什麼都沒做功課,在到達火車站之後就鬧了不少的事情,給了我一場震撼教育。而去雲林也是,大概前9個月都是漫於目的的閒晃,後來才慢慢的鎖定拍攝主題,大量的拍攝了土地上的人。

不過,我在旭海剛接觸到這整個斯卡羅歷史的時候,是感受到一個巨大的斷層,因為對於台灣西部的人而言,自己家族的歷史,頂多只有三四代,對於祖父的祖父的事情,通常已經很難知道,但是對於原住民來說,他們有祖靈、他們有家屋、他們有傳統領地,以及代代不斷相傳的歌謠與物件。這對於台灣大多數那群從大陸撤退來台的漢人而言,是有著巨大的差距。而已經生活在土地上幾百年的原住民,現今如何在中華民國政府的統治之下生存,這也是一個最困難的問題。

在旭海的日子,慢慢的進入一個原住民生活的部落,然後在進入一個民謠的世界,從恆春民謠發展至今在分支為滿州民謠,他們在港仔與里德傳唱,而記得那天剛從高士部落聽完古瑤傳唱的時候,沒幾公里,就聽到張錦桂老師在唱民謠,這也是我第一次深深地感覺到,台灣真的是一個有多元文化的寶島阿!

 

《我在阿塱壹,深呼吸》這本書對我來說則是第一次進入原住民文化的開始,也是能夠補足台灣多元族群的一環。

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不過,朋友問我接下來想寫什麼?心裡好像還沒一個答案,如果有,可能是貢寮吧?

《雲林有大家》出海搭蚵棚-丁建家

出海搭蚵棚-丁建家

Building Oyster Hut on the Sea – Xian-Chia Ting

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為了體驗蚵農的辛苦,凌晨三點,我和台西蛋餅王子丁健家相約在五條港一起出海。
In order to physically experience the challenges of being an oyster farmer, I made an appointment with Xian-Chia Ting, the Chinese omelet prince in Taisi, to go fishing with him in Wu-Tiao Harbour at 3am.

王子給了我一個頭燈和青蛙裝,冷颼颼的夜裡,我們就只有這樣的裝備。等了約莫半小時,才踏上膠筏。膠筏是用幾根五六公尺長的塑膠管拼成的,後端有一台馬達可供給船身動力。啟動了馬達,升起了錨,我們穿過新興工業區的橋樑,往六輕方向駛去。
The prince gave me a flashlight and a hip wader. This was the only equipment we had in the freezing night. We waited for approximately half an hour before getting on the plastic raft. The plastic raft was made from a few plastic hosts that were five to six meters long, and had a motor which provided power from the rear. After starting the motor and raising the anchor, we drove under a bridge to the newly developed industrial area and in the direction of the FPC sixth naphtha cracker complex.
夜間出海,看不到四周的景觀,只看到岸上的燈火漸漸遠離……看不到深海盡頭的我,有些害怕,只好望著遠方的路燈,心理才踏實些。
Being out to sea in the middle of the night made it impossible to see the surrounds. Only the lights from the shore could be seen as they gradually got dimmer as our distance increased. I was a bit afraid since I was not able to see the shore. I was only able to make myself feel more secure by looking at the distant street lights.

我們從沙洲內沿著堤防往前行,新興區的興建改變了海岸的樣子。南岸的沙子不斷流失,北岸的沙子一直堆積,航道漸漸的縮減了。王子說:如果再這樣下去,兩三年後就不能在內海開船了。
As we sailed along the embankment from the sandbank, I observed that the construction of the newly developed area had changed the way the coastline looked. Due to the continual loss of coastal sand on the south shore and the accumulation of sand on the north shore, the naval ports have decreased in size. The prince said “No one will be able to drive a boat on the inland sea after a couple of years if this continues”.
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在海上,我們停泊了兩次,都是在等退潮。等待的時候,我換上了青蛙裝。第一次穿青蛙裝,有種真實感──草綠色的連身厚實防水布一直到胸口的高度,
塑膠管在胸前打結就可以固定住了。防水布一直延伸到腳下的雨鞋,所以胸口以下不會冷。今天風浪不大,但是陣陣北風吹得我鼻涕直流。最後我們到達了目的地─六輕南方的河流出海口,繼續等待潮退。
We stopped twice on the sea, both times to wait for the tides to ebb. I changed to the hip wader while we waited. This was my first time to wear a hip wader, and it felt so real. The green water-proof thick over-all material went all the way up to my chest, and it could be buttoned up just by knotting the plastic tubes in front. The water-proof material extended all the way down to the rain boots, so that your chest would not feel so cold. The wind and wave tonight was not big, but the cold north wind blew until my nose was running. Once we finally arrived at our destination, the river to the sea in the south of the FPC’s sixth naphtha cracker complex, we waited for the tides to ebb.

在漆黑中,只有我們這艘排筏,兩個人就這樣靠著蚵串堆成的小山躲風,卻也不時聞到陣陣惡臭。後方,襯著六輕的夜景,黃澄澄的燈光就這樣在黑夜裡閃耀……。
There was only one raft in the darkness. We hid it behind a little mountain pile by oyster shells from the wind, which smelled foul from time to time. The yellow lights sparkled in the dark night with the FPC’s sixth naphtha cracker complex as the background.
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原本我只在膠筏上拍攝,後來試著下海。我試著伸長腳想要踏到海底卻踏不到,只有全身都離開船,雙腳才能真正踩到沙灘,那種踏不到土地的恐懼感,是我們這群整天在陸上生活的人難以體會的。
I was sitting on the plastic raft at the beginning, and then I tried to get off in the sea. I could not touch the bottom of the sea even after I stretched my legs. Only when my whole body left the raft completely could my feet step on the beach. The fear that you cannot step on land is something that people who live on the land all the time cannot understand.

九點多,搭蚵棚的工作終於完成。我們往外海前進,繞過整個新興工業區。一出海,浪就比較大了,所幸王子的船蠻大的,可以跨過幾個浪頭,坐起來不會太顛簸,我們就在風浪中吃著早已冷掉的國民便當回航。
The oyster hut building works were finally finished around 9am. We moved forward towards the open sea and went around the whole newly developed industrial area. The waves got bigger as soon as we got out to sea. Luckily the prince of Chinese omelet had a big raft that was good enough to ride on top of a few waves without things being too bumpy. We sailed back and finished the lunch box that had become cold a while ago from the wind and waves.

十點多,我們回到岸邊。我回到住宿的地方,累得倒頭就睡,但是王子還要繼續準備下午去賣蛋餅!
We returned to the shore around 10am. I returned to my accommodations and felt so tired and fell right asleep. The prince, however, still needed to prepare to sell his Chinese omelet in the afternoon!

這是我一日的體會,卻是漁民們每日的生活……。
This is just a one day experience for me, but the everyday life of fishermen.

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